This is the second compilation of important points I have captured from “Focus on Lighting Photos” book.
11. To overcome raccoon eyes: The flash we bounce off the ceiling is almost always an external light. We still have that built-in flash on our camera to illuminate those shadows, or we can use a fill card.
12. The photo produced by ceiling bounce and fill card is a basic, competent picture but not an exciting one.
13. In case where it is not possible to bounce light to ceiling or wall : big bounce card, an umbrella and a collapsible ring reflector.
14. As a reflector, umbrella behaves like big bounce card with one important exception. If we are shooting a portrait, the reflection from human skin will be identical. However if we photograph a mirror-like subject such as glass or metal, the shape of light will be apparent in the reflection (can be quite ugly).
15. A black-backed umbrella is useful when we work in tight space. It keeps light from going through the umbrella and reflecting from walls or other surfaces. The black cloth is removable. This is the best umbrella to have.
16. Circular reflector has an advantage over big bounce card which is more stability in wind. Cloth allows some air to blow through it while paper and plastic blow over to the ground more easily.
17. Softbox creates beautiful soft light.
18. Remember that the closer the light is to the subject, the bigger it effectively becomes.
19. If we have full manual control, we maybe able to set the flash for a long lens (narrow angle of coverage) and then actually use a much shorter lens. This gives the flash a slight spotlight effect.
20. In a black-and-white picture, a yellow, orange or red filter could dramatically darken a too-bright sky; a green one could greatly increase detail in leaves.